Battle of the Pyramids

Battle of the Pyramids


(21st July 1798)

The decisive battle fought near the pyramids of Giza that gave Napoleon control of Egypt. He took Alexandria by storm on 2nd July, and then, with 40,000 men defeated a Mameluke army of 60,000 led by Murad Bey. The victory enabled Napoleon to take Cairo and allowed France to control Egypt until its withdrawal in 1801.


Uthman (or Osman)

Third Caliph of Islam (644–56). He restored representatives of the old Meccan aristocracy to positions of influence, creating considerable discontent. His personal weakness led to rivalry to his authority from Aisha, the youngest wife of Muhammad, from Ali, his cousin and son-in-law, and others. He was murdered by mutinous troops from Egypt. His lasting memorial was the authorized version of the Koran, compiled at his order.
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